Research, Studies & Agency Guidelines
The links below include research and studies on the impacts of wind development, including studies specific to Wisconsin windfarms. Most of the studies are in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format.
Wind turbine syndrome: Farm hosts tell very different story | September 17, 2013
People who host wind turbines on their properties and derive rental income from wind energy companies have important stories to tell about living alongside turbines, but they've largely been absent from the debate on wind.
- More positive developments on wind turbine sound | August 9, 2013
Chris Long's article highlights research showing that wind turbine sound complaints are uncommon unless instigated by anti-wind groups and that infrasound and low-frequency sound levels are not impacted by nearby wind farms.
- Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon
This Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a more general assessment of the ways that wind energy developments in Oregon might affect the health of individuals and communities where they are built and maintained.
- Wind Turbine Health Impact Study: Report of Independent Expert Panel | January 2012
Prepared for theMassachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Massachusetts Department of Public Health.
- Wind Turbine Generator Noise Issues | June 2, 2010
Presentation for the Wisconsin Wind Siting Council from James P. Cowan, INCE Bd.Cert. Principal Engineer, Acoustics and Noise Control.
- Letter to the St. Croix County HHS
| April 30, 2012
From Kitty Rhoades, Deputy Secretary of DHS regarding the Administration’s stance on health impacts from wind generation.
- Wind Turbines: A
Brief Health Overview | May 17, 2010
A presentation made to the Wisconsin Wind Siting Council by Jevon D. McFadden, MD, MPH
- Setback and Siting Analysis, a Case Study: Glacier Hills Wind Park (PSC
REF#:132584) | June 2, 2010
A presentation to the Wisconsin Wind Siting Council from Andy Hesselbach.
- UK Shadow Flicker Study
Update of UK Shadow Flicker Evidence Base. Reported for DECC prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff.To enable the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change to advance current understanding of the shadow flicker effect, this report details the findings of an investigation into the phenomenon of shadow flicker.
Using Echolocation Monitoring to Model Bat Occupancy ...
| July 28, 2011
Fatalities of migratory bats, many of which use low frequency (<35 kHz; LowF) echolocation calls, have become a primary environmental concern associated with wind energy development. Accordingly, strategies to improve compatibility between wind energy development and conservation of bat populations are needed. We combined results of continuous echolocation and meteorological monitoring at multiple stations to model conditions that explained presence of LowF bats at a wind energy facility in southern California.
- Assessing Bird and Bat Mortality at the Forward Energy Center | August, 2011
The following report presents the final results of a 2-year post-construction bird and bat mortality study at the Center. The primary analyses were conducted to estimate bird and bat mortality at the Center, and identify which meteorological, temporal, spatial, species-specific, and turbine-specific covariates were associated with bird and bat mortality. Data were collected for two fall study periods (July 15 – November 15, 2008 and July 15 – October 15, 2009) and two spring study periods (April 15-May 31, 2009 and 2010) to assess mortality during bird and bat migratory periods. The results of this study will be useful to future planning and wildlife management efforts of wind farms in Wisconsin and the Upper Midwest.
- 2 page FACT SHEET - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s final Voluntary Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines
- Weller, Theodore J.; Baldwin, James A. 2011. Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities. Journal of Wildlife Management. 9999:1–13.
- An Assessment of Research on the Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy in the Great Lakes Region, Great Lakes Wind Collaborative,
Great Lakes Commission, November 2011
Report is also available from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative web site. Contact: Becky Pearson, 734-971-9135, email@example.com
- Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 (Related to CPCN# 6630-CE-294), Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc., December 2009
- A Landscape Scale Decision Support Tool for Monitoring Bird and Bat Migration Across Wisconsin
Prepared by: Manuel Suarez, US Geological Survey Patricia Heglund – US Fish and Wildlife Service Robert Kratt, Media Specialist – US Geological Survey Eileen Kirsch, U.S. Geological Survey, July 200
- Evaluating Bird and Bat Migration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley and Its Implications for Siting Wind Energy Facilities: A Workshop Series for Resource Agencies and Wind Developers
Prepared by: Brian Bub and Jon Gumtow, Project Coordinators, Natural Resources Consulting, Inc. Barbara Behlke, Facilitator, Behlke Consulting, Inc. Richard Purdy, Ph.D., Administrator, River Country Resource Conservation and Development Council, Inc.
Wind Power’s Contribution to Wisconsin’s Local Economies
|Glacier Hills||We Energies||Randolph, Scott||Columbia||$648,000||$675,000||$1,318,0001|
|Blue Sky, Green Field||We Energies||Marshfield, Calumet||Fond du Lac||$580,000||$440,000||$1,020,000|
|Forward||Invenergy||Byron, Oakfield, Leroy, Lomira||Fond du Lac, Dodge||$516,000||$430,000||$946,000|
|Cedar Ridge||WPL||Eden, Empire||Fond du Lac||$270,000||$205,000||$ 477,000|
|Butler Ridge||NextEra Energy||Herman||Dodge||$216,000||$180,000||$396,000|
1Act 31, passed in 2003, established a statewide formula for allocating state gross receipts tax payments back to host local governments. This formula does not apply to wind generation facilities built before 2003
3Includes payments to neighboring landowners
Wind Power's Effect on Property Values
- Wind Turbines and Property Value (PSC
A presentation by Kurt C. Kielisch, ASA, IFAS, SR/WA, R/W-AC; President – Appraisal Group One
- The Impact of Wind Power Projects
on Residential Property Values in
the United States:
A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis
by Ben Hoen, Ryan Wiser, Peter Cappers, Mark Thayer, and Gautam Sethi, Environmental Energy Technologies Division-LBL, December 2009
- Wind Farm Proximity and Property Values: A Pooled Hedonic Regression Analysis of Property Values in Central Illinois by Jennifer L. Hinman, Illinois State University, May 2010
- Impact on the Value of Surrounding Properties, Rosiere and Lincoln Wind Farms, Kewaunee County, Wisconsin (pages 16-27) -- from "A Real Estate Study of the Proposed Lee-DeKalb Wind Energy Center, Prepared for FPL Energy Illinois Wind, LLC" by Poletti and Associates, Inc., March 2009 (13MB)
provided courtesy of NextEra Energy
These Guidelines are intended to:
- Promote Compliance with relevant wildife laws and regulations;
- Encourage scientifically rigorous research design;
- Produce potentially comparable data across the Nation;
- Mitigate, including avoid, minimize, and compensate for potential adverse effects on species of concern and their habitats;
- Improve the ability to predict and resolve effects locally, regionally, and nationally
Wisconsin Resource Study Reports
- Harnessing Wisconsin's Energy Resources: An Initial Investigation Into Great Lakes Wind Development (January 2009)- A Report to the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin DOCKET 5-EI-144
- Offshore Wind Study (July 2004)- author Robert Owen, Jr.
Supply & Transmission Studies
- Wind Energy Transmission Economics Assessment | March 2010
Prepared For WPPI Energy Sun Prairie, Wisconsin; Project No. 55056; prepared by Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri
- A GIS Method for Developing
Wind Supply Curves | June 2008
by David Kline, Donna Heimiller, and Shannon Cowlin Prepared under Task No. WF1F.1020 Technical Report NREL/TP-670-43053
- The Cost of Transmission for
Wind Energy: A Review of
Transmission Planning Studies | February 2009
by Andrew Mills, Ryan Wiser, and Kevin Porter Environmental Energy Technologies Division-LBL